The Land Board was founded on January 16, 1990.
At that time it was called the Estonian National Land Board and it started its work under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Agriculture.
Since July 16, 1993 the Land Board has been operating under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Environment.
The Land Board was established with the objective to ensure a more efficient management and use of land, to organise geodetic and cartographic activities, establish the land cadastre, organise land assessment and supervise the enforcement of land tax, issue licences for land readjustment activities, solve land disputes, etc.
One of the most complicated tasks in the early years was the initiation of land reform.
Ago Soasep, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, was appointed as the first Director General of the Land Board. From June 1991 Raivo Vallner, the former Deputy Director General, continued as Director General. In 1995 the Minister of the Environment appointed Kalev Kangur as Director General, Raivo Vallner continued in the position of the 1st Deputy Director until June 2016. The current Director General Tambet Tiits has been in office since the 23rd of February 2015.