Traditionally, the management of the land relied on a particular form of representation: the map. With the arrival of computers and databases, the maps are now represented by digital data and have continuously evolved by virtually adding more thematic layers representing different attributes of the land and providing a more detailed and sophisticated representation. Today everything is still accelerating with the latest technologies of the digital revolution including "Big Data", the "Internet of Things", the "Blockchain", predictive algorithms of "Deep Learning", etc. These technologies offer analytical tools for introducing the notion of anticipation and prediction into land management. The new technologies of the digital revolution bring even more. They do not stop at the mere consideration of Big Data. Blockchains, for example, through their chain-based structure of contracts will allow the management of the deeds and land records in a whole new way by bypassing the work currently done by notaries and municipal offices holding registers. When reviewing these transformations, it becomes apparent that the representation of the land, and with it its management and governance will continue to change dramatically.
We therefore propose a whole new approach to master this new situation. One can envision a representation (codification) of the territory that could be called: "The Land Code". This term would refer to the fact that the proposed model would be both computational and legal. Blockchains, where computer code encrypts the management of the land (plots, properties, houses, or other land objects and thus affecting even cadastres and land registries) can give an indication of what the future may hold. "The Land Code" would be both digital (computer code) and legal since it would serve as "law".
There is a lot of interest in Blockchain technology at this moment and next to digital currencies, land administration gets a lot of attention. The blockchain is an example of a distributed system: a system that has identical processes running on a large number of nodes in a network. There are several types of distributed systems, like distributed ledgers (e.g. blockchain), interplanetary file system (IPFS) or Corda. The use of this type of system comes with a lot of promises like trust, immutability, resilience and scalability. Apart from these benefits, distributed systems also come with new governance challenges, e.g.:
We have found that to be able to effectively deploy distributed systems, the ways in which we used to manage systems is no longer effective. To be able to successfully use distributed systems, we have been researching these governance issues. In our presentation we will share the results from our research and the solutions we have found.
How can trust be kept in a digital word? When embarking on a project in the beginning of 2016 focusing on blockchain and land administration three challenges were addressed; digital units that cannot be copied, digital units that cannot be manipulated and processes that cannot be manipulated. The first phase of the project was a proof of concept with a demo application followed by a test bed. The blockchain was used in the proof of concept to secure the process and digital contracts in this phase. Questions in following phases are relating to e.g. governance and legal issues. The explorations in the field are on-going as we are working towards a digital future.
The presentation provides an overview of the Estonian cadastre data content, data distribution services and exchange systems. It also introduces the planned amendments in the Land Cadastre Act to create a better basis for enforcing electronic procedures in land management. All these changes are based on principles of moving from unit based procedures to point-based cadastre and allowing simplified survey methods.
This presentation aims to handle the issues of cadastral data availability and reliability in Estonia. The focus is on economics, or to be more precise, on the needs of property market analysis and valuation, all technical, legal, etc. aspects, although not less significant in some other context, are out of the scope. Cadastral data are handled in a wider scope including data about land, buildings, forest, etc. The findings of presentation show that most of significant data are easily accessible and most often reliable enough. Position of e-sources is crucial. However, there are still areas which are not fully covered or data access is restricted or even prohibited. Data reliability is partly affected by the absence or non-efficient performance of data collection and actualization. This presentation concerns Estonia, but the issues raised may apply in many other countries as well.
The presentation provides an overview of land acquisition and the challenges that Estonia has with implementing the Rail Baltic project. Legislation has become outdated and laws do not meet the expectations of society. New legislation enables different kind of compensation possibilities and alternatives. A number of landowners hope to receive compensation in land and therefore land consolidation opportunities should be used. The goal is to satisfy both state and land owners after the railway has been built and with the help of land consolidation alleviate the negative effects of building the railway on life and environment. The final aim of constructing Rail Baltic is to connect Estonia to the rest of Europe.
Cadastral developments are dependent on long term processes in different domains (regulatory, organizational, technology, public relations, commitment building etc.)
Detailed analysis, detailed specification, planning and harmonized execution of those processes from beginning to the end has probably never been an easy task. In modern world of increasing dynamics and complexity this is getting even harder on daily basis.
We need new practices, methods and paradigms to face real-life challenges in pursuit of successfully implementing useful and high-quality cadastral solutions in different cultural, political and technological environments under ever-increasing time pressure and increasingly volatile windows of opportunities.
Also, it cannot be over-emphasized that in too many public sector IT / e-governance projects, the wide spread perception of those being purely technology (not paradigm shift / capacity building) projects has been a source of failures all too often all around the world.
There is no universal solution or recipe for all possible cases. However, there are certain components we have successfully used in quite different projects recently:
Experiences gained from different GIS/e-Gov development projects conducted by DatelOvela Group in Europe and US during recent years will be discussed, with an attempt to analyze and systemize those to certain degree. Due to relative freshness of the experience no attempt of scientific research based on those has been attempted yet.
However, our long-term partnership with ENLB has provided us with invaluable opportunity to reach out for and discuss the matters in broader context and with more insights compared to what could be available for us alone as software and services provider company.
Cadastre 2035 is a research project financed by the National Land Survey of Finland, the Ministry of Forestry and Agriculture and Aalto University. Objective of the project is to provide information for public decision-making process by increasing understanding and possibilities to prepare for different futures.
This presentation focuses on global shaping forces, also called megatrends, in the context of cadastral systems and land administration in general. First, eight megatrends that Finnish land administration experts considered to have the highest impact on the future of the cadastral system, are presented. The issue was studied by conducting a two round Delphi panel in Nov 2016 - Jan 2017. Then, four alternative future narratives for the Finnish cadastral system that are formed from the same collected material are discussed at general level.
In the last decades the cadastre and its partners in the land market have digitized their processes. At the same time our environment has even digitalized much faster. Stakeholders and citizens have become just as – or even more - digitally capable than we have as cadastral institutions. This also provides the opportunity to reconsider our working methods and incorporate parties in the land market. Be it the professional crowd or the society at large.
In this contribution we shall share our experiences in the Netherlands (and thereby European context) which relate to cadastre but also (large scale) mapping, but also look into examples in the world where a cadastre has to be established quickly and where the crowd is pivotal in the success of securing land rights.
The valuation method of the Spanish cadastre for the massive valuation of the real estate is very much accepted by the different agents and citizens. It is a methodology based in the use of the descriptive data of the properties collected in the cadastre and a set of valuation rules that are consolidated over time.
However the valuation procedure is complex, expensive and subject to the political situation in each municipality and therefore it cannot be done with the desired frequency. The obtained cadastral values of the properties follow pretty well the market in price stability scenarios but the system reveals itself as inadequate in scenarios of high rises or descents of value in the absence of agile mechanisms of updating the value.
To avoid these problems the Spanish cadastre is defining a new methodology that allows to define annually for each property of all municipalities a reference value based on the monitoring of the real estate market and of the development of the territory (structural and urbanistic).
The reference value will be the limit of the cadastral value, which according to the cadastre law, cannot exceed the market value.
The determination will be carried out by means of the following bases:
From the product type of each zone, the reference value module will be obtained, as the most probable price of sale of the property representative type of the zone, calculated statistically of the values of the purchase-sales of the market.
The reference value of each property is calculated from the reference value module of the representative type property of the zone, and corrected according to the differences in its physical characteristics.
Annually the Budget Law will update the amounts of the reference value modules. These updates are moved immediately to the individualized reference values and in this way every real estate will have an update reference value every year, what was not possible before with the methodology defined by law for the calculation of the rateable cadastral value.
The concept of 3D property has only existed for little longer than a decade in Sweden, being introduced in 2004 and expanded in 2009 by the addition of condominium (apartment) ownership. It is therefore a rather new form of land management, and the demand for 3D has not been as high as initially expected. There is however an increased interest in 3D property and ownership apartments today. The 3D property formation is focused on registration of ownership and use rights in the national Swedish real property register (cadastre). The cadastre consists of a textual part (the land register, containing information on title holder, easements, mortgages, unique parcel id, etc.) and a geographical part (the digital index map, containing spatial extension of property units, and associated rights, responsibilities and restrictions). Cadastral data and 3D property formation processes are together with 3D data on buildings and other features important parts of the national digital infrastructure. There are ongoing 3D development and research projects. Which are part of the national “Smart Built Environment” development and research programme, which include, among other things, the use of BIM in the (future) 3D property formation process with focus on visualization of 3D real property and condominiums, and specification of requirements and evaluation of 3D digital real property information created and manages in the processes.
The Land Cadastre and the Land Register have a very long tradition in the territory of the Czech Republic and are fully integrated into one system. The Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre is the state administration body responsible for surveying, mapping and cadastre in the Czech Republic.
In 2001 the Information System of the Cadastre of Real Estates was established in the Czech Republic as an integrated information system of support for the state administration on the Cadastre of Real Estates. In 2014 a new Cadastral Law was adopted in connection with the new Civil Code, which confirmed the vast changes in the legal rights records.
Since 2015 the Document Management System has been used for the storage of all the documents submitted to Cadastral offices, not only the documents lodged in electronic format but also the applications in analogue format, which are scanned afterwards to be processed electronically. All the descriptive and graphical data of the Cadastre and the Land Register is now in digital format, structured and processed electronically.
As the next logical step after completing digitalization of the cadastral maps the improvement of the technical quality of the cadastral data has been designated. In 2017 a continuous mapping and revision programme was launched as a way how to increase the quality of the technical data – to improve the positional accuracy, to remove discrepancies between records and reality in the field, to keep data up-to-date and to record new land use features.
As this programme shows, the providers of other spatial data should directly update the cadastral data on the base of the RÚIAN register. To improve technical attributes, it is also estimated that every cadastral unit should be mapped or revised by 2030.
This ambitious plan illustrates how important data quality improvements and electronic services are for the Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre. It should support smooth provision of reliable data to our clients.
From 1991 to 2017, Lithuania has come a long way of development as well as the Real Property Cadastre, launched in 1998. The Real Property Register contains the following real property objects: land parcels, buildings and premises, engineering structures and rights thereto. On the 1st of January 2017, the Lithuanian Real Property Register contained 6,600,774 real properties registered there.
The Centre of Registers has developed and launched a Real Property Register subsystem E-Surveyor, which is based on the cloud computing principle and has 3 components designed for surveyors, the Keeper of Cadastre and the staff of the National Land Service. The product operates on-line and has an integrated remote platform for inter-institutional approval of the real property cadastral data files and for exchange of information and documents. To optimise the work of the Cadastre Keeper, a multi-level automated data quality control was introduced into the product. E-Surveyor has smart libraries installed, semi-automated processing of surveying data, semi-automated self-control tools, and preparation of cadastral data files.
Based on the PDF open standard format for electronic document and on the PDF-LT-V1.0 Electronic Document Specification approved by the Office of the Chief Archivist of Lithuania, the specialists of the Centre of Registers created an electronic document format PDF-RC-V1.0 for electronic documents with attached files containing spatial and raster information.
E-Surveyor tools allow creating smart and dynamic sets of integrated graphical data, what enables to record the cadastral data of real properties into the Real Property Cadastre automatically, to transfer textual and graphical data to the Real Property Register and electronic documents to the electronic archive. E-Surveyor contributes to the implementation of the fourth industrial revolution trends: speed, quality, smartness, data integration.
In Central Europe, several countries, including Switzerland, have a partnership regime with the private surveyors' offices. These act on behalf of the State and are therefore subject to strict rules to do so, whether at the level of education, continuing education, obtaining a strictly regulated license, belonging to an order or a chamber, or observing ethical rules.
This situation has been working for many years and led to a "win-win" contract for the parties involved. This is obviously not the only way to carry out the management of the cadastre and the undersigned to expose the advantages and disadvantages of the system.
He will also take stock of more than 100 years of public-private partnership in Switzerland in the field of cadastre.
In his presentation Jean-Yves Pirlot highlights the importance of authoritative data. He insists on the role of the state when “it has to be right” and develops the possible cooperation between the public and private sectors to achieve the required trust. One interesting model of cooperation is the public appointment of private surveyors. The legal background behind this model is explained as well as the position expressed in the recent Code of Professional Qualifications for Property surveyors developed by CLGE.
Finally Pirlot promotes the ongoing project to update a study about the European Requirements for Cadastral Surveyor Activities from 2008. He proposes the participants to the PCC Conference in Tallinn to take an active part in this project.
The focus of the presentation “Data as a basis of the digital society” is the upcoming Bulgarian presidency of the Permanent Committee on Cadastre. Bulgaria will take over from Estonia the presidency for the first six months of 2018 and presents its priorities for the period. The main focus is the data, and in particular, the spatial data. Some main features of data are considered – the quality of the data and its sources; data security in relation with privacy, integrity, protection, etc.; and data integration and provision of services – standards, formats, ways of delivery and types of services. Some short information about Bulgaria and next PCC conference is also included.